There is a growing preference for greater consumption of livestock products in China (Pan, 2011), which has implications for numbers of livestock reared, manure generation and sustainable use of manure nutrients. This increase in livestock production (via increased livestock numbers and increased efficiencies of production) is most likely to be achieved through a greater number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and intensive farms, which tend to be landless systems, rather than via increased numbers of livestock per traditional household, or in co-operative livestock systems (in which multiple livestock Mutant IDH1-IN-1 operate using common management practices). There is therefore a need to plan how the manures from these CAFOs and intensive farms (and the nutrients colonial contain) can be effectively and sustainably utilised. Fig. 1 illustrates the different stages of manure management during the whole manure chain.
Fig. 1. Schematic overview of utilized routine and critical treatment steps for solid and liquid livestock manure based on integrated crop-animal systems in China. Note: the current situation in China is that much of the liquid fraction of manures is lost from housing, storage and processing prior to land spreading, representing inefficiency in nutrient use and impacting adversely on the environment.(Adapted from Chadwick et al., 2011).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide